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April 2024 - Year 26 - Issue 2

ISSN 1755-9715

Teaching: Science, Art or Philosophy?

Michael Tooke has taught at Universities in Saudi Arabia, Italy and England. He has written on English for Academic Purposes, listening through films, imaginative understanding and the teaching of History in schools. His main current interests are the ideas of Rudolf Steiner and their application to education.




There is a tendency today to emphasise science at the expense of art and philosophy creating an imbalance in the human being. One way to redress this is to encourage the harmonious development of thinking (science), feeling (art) and willing (philosophy). The EAP course, described in this article, emphasised skills over content and thus detached thinking from feeling and willing. It was re-organised so that content and skills could interact coherently. Journals were introduced to satisfy the demands for reflection, but they ultimately helped participants consciously recognise the need to re-integrate thinking, feeling and willing into a coherent whole.


It is generally acknowledged that we are living today in a materialist age, in which physical matter is considered primary and science, at least in its modern guise, dominates our view of what it means to be human. This one sided idea of the human being, underplaying as it does both art and philosophy has, arguably, led to a serious imbalance in our understanding of ourselves.

In the world of teaching, for example, it is often said that we should be student centred. Though interpreted in different ways, this generally involves an assessment of students’ needs, writing client learning contracts, an emphasis on skill, learning by doing, requiring students to discover rules from examples and asking them to give feedback (see, for example Hedge, 1996). Although such techniques are certainly valid, they can easily lead to looking at students from the outside, providing measurable criteria for evaluating their eventual success. In addition to this external view, however, we need to look from within and try to understand, first and foremost, what a student, that is, a human being, actually is. On this view, the key knowledge for any teacher is not so much how to create programmes based on needs or methods to stimulate learning, but how to understand what it means to be human (Steiner, 1951 /1996: 16)

Such an endeavour has been central to all ages. In ancient times, the idea of the human was expressed imaginatively in myths, but common to all of them was the idea of man as a tripartite being, consisting of spirit, soul and body, the outer expression of this, being respectively religion (philosophy), art and science. The majesty and completeness of the Bhagavad Gita (Massaro, 1962), for example, has been attributed to its ability to weave together the three strands of the Veda (religion / philosophy), yoga (art) and sankhya (science) into a living whole (Steiner, 1961 / 2009).

In a more individualised way in Greek mythology the three are equally balanced in the figure of Apollo – the perfected man, but in imbalance in Dionysus – man in development. Man has to continuously seek balance within. Dionysus, Born of a divine father, Zeus, and a mortal mother, and cut into pieces, out of jealously, by Zeus’ wife, Hera,  is saved by Athena (wisdom) who places his heart back into Zeus’s thigh. Man is part divine (spirit) and mortal (body) but he can only become whole after wisdom (heart) has put him into contact with his divine self (Steiner, 1910 / 1997).

The middle ages came to lose sight of the three fold being of man and conflated the spirit with the soul. In the Council of Constantinople in 869 AD the church officially declared that man consisted only of body and soul, with the soul bearing within it some spiritual characteristics (Steiner, 1982 / 2015)

The tendency to conflate spirit and soul continued into the Renaissance where man was seen as having a lower animal side and a higher “rational” one. The difference with the Middle Ages is perhaps that in the latter more emphasis was laid on man as a creature with a the soul while in the Renaissance he was seen as a creature of freedom (Pico Della Mirandola, 1487 / 2021). Ever since, we have clearly become more individualised and more aware of ourselves as free beings. To create balance within ourselves, therefore, we have to find balance by ourselves, i.e. in freedom. Yet working with freedom is fraught with danger as we often flee the responsibility such freedom requires (Fromm, 1941). In addition to all this, the current tendency is to reduce man entirely to the level of a material body without either soul or spirit. In effect, science has become the dominant mode of expression, while art and philosophy have been relegated to second or third place:

I possess a name that I am not allowed to pronounce in the presence of objective science. I am called philosophy, I am called wisdom. I have conserved the scandalous name of love … and I have in myself something which already in its very name shows that it is connected to human interiority, to love. I cannot show myself any longer and I have to roam the world in shame. Objective science boasts that it has nothing of “philo” and has, as a result, lost  true “sophy” (Steiner 1990 / 2007 own translation)

So, to piece Dionysus together again via our own conscious efforts, requires us to go beyond technical knowledge and regain wisdom. Such a recovery would return to a tripartite vision of man in a way consonant with our more developed self-consciousness and increased inner freedom.

Anthroposophy, the movement of thought initiated by Rudolf Steiner at the beginning of the 20th century, sees the three parts of man as operating on a practical level in thinking , feeling and willing (Childs, 1991). For the purposes of this essay, willing is defined as a force that brings something from the world of the possible to the actual, making it manifest, concrete and real. It is doing and action, a bringing down to earth and a bringing alive, a creating which implies continuous movement, moulding and forming. It is that which realises a plan or a goal, it is a revelation. This is expressed in religion (philosophy) as it reveals the world of the spirit, the moral order that sets out how to direct our lives.

Feeling, on the other hand, creates interest, bringing warmth and enthusiasm, yet also illuminates and guides understanding, indicating whether our thoughts are true or not. It is, thus, generally connected with art, while thinking conceptualises, changing percepts into concepts, organizing and putting into order and thus making logical connections, which characterises the work of present-day science.

Given the dominance of science, especially in academic life, the challenge for the teacher of the present is to bring, and continue bringing, these three faculties into harmony in such a way that they can help students to be more balanced, self-aware and “human”.

This article looks at one specific English for Academic Purposes (EAP) course and my attempts to reduce its emphasis on science and bring the three faculties into balance.

The course

The course was a ten-week summer pre-sessional at the University of Birmingham in England preparing almost exclusively Chinese students in their early twenties for a one year Masters in Business Studies. The aim of the course was thus to lead the students to the required level of English and academic skill to be able to finish their Master’s degree. The syllabus divided the weeks into separate topics and provided reading, listening and language material as well as suggestions for their use. However, this tended to be technical and disconnected. The learning objectives were expressed in terms of skills. Although there was a nominal topic for each week this was in effect lost as the week jumped from one subject to another with no continuity of content. Week four, for example, on the nominal topic of branding, started with a case study illustrating the marketing mix, which was followed by a reading on brand visioning, leading to how to write conclusions for an essay based on the topic of leadership, returning to another case on motivation, and ending up on Friday with exercises on nominalisation and techniques for presentation skills.

This encouraged methods that concentrated for the most part on sentence level language and the development of skills in isolation. Assessment was in terms of an essay, an unseen case study analysis, listening and a seminar. As might be expected, these emphasised the product rather than the process of learning. Reflective questions were included once a week, but they tended to be general and not specifically integrated into the activities of the week. As such, they were not given much prominence and tended to be skewed towards an intellectual, thinking approach rather than a rounded development of the students.

In order to redress what all this implied - the overwhelmingly intellectual emphasis in the course - it was necessary to make a number of adjustments. There needed to be a more holistic approach that could harmonise thinking, feeling and willing. The main goal had to be the creation of a clear pathway through the week in which the class activities led into each other, the homework reflected what was going on in class and the reflective questions arose naturally from both.

The aim of the course, thus, became the development of thinking, feeling and willing in the students’ learning as much as the learning itself, the syllabus became more task based and the reflective questions were related to the work being done in class.

Example week

The topic of week four, used above as an example, was branding. It was re-organised in the following way: Over the previous weekend the students had been asked to access an article from the University’s online library on branding and note the aim of the article, the position of the writer, the main ideas and some examples.

On Monday, they discussed their articles and were asked to think of how branding might be important for famous companies of their choice and then how such companies might develop their brand and their products over the following five years. This led into a reading on brand envisioning.  As a reflective question they were asked to devise a mind map including the various elements of the branding process and describe it. They also had to work in groups after class, with each group being responsible for presenting the branding process of a particular company the following Wednesday.

On Tuesday, they conducted a debate about the advantages of working at home or in an office with an emphasis on advantage and disadvantage language. In the evening, they had to reflect on the value of debating as an intellectual exercise.

On Wednesday, they watched a model presentation, presented their companies to each other in groups and finally branded their own companies (which they had invented in the weeks prior to week four). In the evening, they had to write, as a reflective exercise, on their performance in their presentations. 

On Thursday, they interviewed each other to see who could work at home rather than in an office. They then had to prepare in their journals for a role play on the Friday (in which they were to take roles in a company planning to launch a new product) by prioritising what the company should look at in such a process.

Finally, on Friday, They conducted the role play and, in their reflections, looked back on the week to see what they had done, how they had done it and how they could improve in the future. 

The activities were thus integrated with each other and were developed coherently throughout the week.



As mentioned above, the reflective questions had been included in the syllabus to increase students’ awareness of their learning. They had been set once a week and had no concrete connection to the specific activities done in class. With the re-organisation, the reflective questions became the third mainstay of the course, after the classroom activities and the homework. They were set every day from Monday to Friday. The students then sent their answers (five a week) to the author every Saturday for comment and / or correction. Such writing came to constitute an on-going journal that continued for most of the 10 weeks. It completed the process of learning, allowing the students to look back or forward and make conscious what they were experiencing in class. It could be said that, whereas the classroom encouraged more acquisition (unconscious learning), the journals emphasised more learning (conscious learning) (Krashen, 1976). They became a thread for the students to negotiate and take control of their path through the course. They were reflective, and thereby satisfied the requirements of the original syllabus, but in their own way worked together with feeling and willing. They somehow, and quite unexpectedly, added the final touch to the course.

This perhaps should not have been so much of a surprise as, arguably, a journal presupposes the desire on the part of the writer to clarify his own personal experience. It is often written primarily by and for the subjective self. It is thus intimately connected with an inner search for understanding. As an art form it has been traced back to the satires of Lucilius, and then Horace, whose main impulse was arguably to develop and express their own inner convictions about themselves and the world (Hooley, 2007). It appeared at a time when individuality was becoming more important and personality – enshrined in the rights of the Roman citizen – was being slowly defined, but it continued in the work of the scholastics, who sought to justify individuality (Steiner, 1972 / 1983). In other words, the journal has accompanied Western culture, as well as the rest of the world, in its development of freedom.

Thinking, feeling and willing in the journals

The journals were, as mentioned above, originally thought of as a reflective task with an emphasis on being critical. They did not expressly encourage either art or philosophy.  With the reorganisation of the course, however, the students went beyond mere reflection and, in their analyses, combined thinking, feeling and willing. The work in class, harmonising the three faculties, re-appeared in their journals. In effect, the journals became evidence that the participants were indeed learning how to develop the three together. In this way, rather than being merely reflective, they recaptured the original meaning of a journal – a tool for the development of the whole being of man. 

The reflective side of the journals followed, to an extent, Barnett’s classification of what it means to be critical. In his 1997 book he argued that we can become “critical” of our knowledge, our selves or the world (see table below). The journal questions confined themselves to a critique of the self rather than of knowledge or the world on the ground that we need first to focus on ourselves before trying to change anything else.

As can be seen from table one, critique of ourselves can be divided into four levels: we may begin with the monitoring of work and progress or, in other words, keeping track of what we are doing (self-monitoring). At a higher level, we can reflect on ourselves and try to develop ways of doing our work differently, asking ourselves if there is not a better way to proceed (self-reflection). At a still higher level, we can try to negotiate the subject we are studying, by seeing how it relates to us (development of self within traditions) and, finally, we begin to see how we are changing ourselves and our identities in the process of learning (reconstruction of self).

Levels of criticality

Levels of criticality




Transformatory critique

Knowledge critique

Reconstruction of self

Critique-in-action (collective reconstruction of world)

Refashioning of traditions

Critical thought (malleable traditions of thought)

Development of self within traditions

Mutual understanding and development of traditions


Critical thinking (reflection on one’s understanding)

Self-reflection (reflection on one’s own projects)

Reflective practice (‘meta-competence’, ‘adaptability’ ‘flexibility’)

Critical skills

Discipline-specific critical thinking skills

Self-monitoring to given standards and norms

Problem-solving (means-end instrumentalism)

Forms of criticality

Critical reason

Critical self-reflection

Critical action


Table one: levels of criticality from Barnett (1997) p. 103

How this was balanced in the journals by feeling and willing is illustrated in the following extracts from three days in week four of the course (the participants’ English has not been changed). It is important to emphasise here that an analysis of the extracts also requires us to draw on the three faculties. It is not possible to separate out thinking, feeling and willing in a purely schematic or scientific way but via an interpretation of the words the participants have used. The following is presented as such. 



Reflective Question: Why is a debate a useful academic exercise? (development of self within traditions)

The learners experienced a debate in the morning class and then wrote up in the evening about its value as a technique:

There was an interesting debate in class today. Discussion means that everyone could put forward different ideas, and finally discuss the best result by combining various advantages and disadvantages. While the debate is only two opposite positions, both sides need to carry out logical dialectics according to our own position, and even if the opinions of the positions are different from those of our own, we should also demonstrate according to the arguments of the holders. Compared with discussion, debate is more able to exercise our reverse thinking. We need to think out more arguments from various angles to verify our position, which can also exercise our divergent thinking. It is a good exercise of our thinking ability. On the other hand, debate can exercise our quick reaction ability. We need to quickly refute the arguments of the other position's debaters and respond to the questions raised by them. Debate can also allow us to have a deeper level of thinking, enrich our knowledge, and also can better exercise the ability of teamwork, better arrangement of team division. It is very useful exercise for our study

The question is likely to elicit a more thinking response than anything else. Ivy (the names have been changed) has, in fact, taken a critical stand and looked at the debate as a technique. First, remembering the debate she experienced in class, she admits to a curiosity and interest in it. She differentiates it from a discussion in that the latter is amicable, requiring a group to suggest solutions and come to some form of conclusion, while the former is more competitive and requires the actors be willing to take a stand against the ideas of others. This hones thinking skills of which three are mentioned: that of seeing the world from another’s point of view, of looking at a variety of perspectives and being able to react quickly to what others say. 

Yet, Ivy points out that a debate also requires us to engage with others in real time and to work together for a purpose. It thus involves action and empathy where we listen to our team and the opposing team to see the world from another’s point of view. In experiencing and looking back, Ivy does not see a debate as a means for the individual to win an argument and thus as mere technique, but as a way to an understanding of others and others’ ideas. 



Reflective question: Comment on your presentation skills (self-monitoring and self-reflection)

The class had been divided into four groups on the previous Monday, each group having to prepare, in their own time, a presentation on a company with specific reference to one aspect of the company’s operations. They then divided into new groups for the presentations, such that each student in each group had a different company to introduce. At the end of the process, they were asked to choose which company they would like to work for and explain why. In the evening, they commented on their performance

 “I think the four presentations of my group [class] today are excellent. All four of us had a good, lively and effective interaction with the audience, and eye contact with each other was appropriate. It is worth mentioning that the fourth group's display, especially the display materials prepared by their group, designed and drew a picture of case analysis according to Porter's five forces model. Combined with the exhibition materials, the display ideas are clear and logical.

As far as my own performance is concerned, I feel that I am still a little nervous, which makes my overall expression not very smooth. Fortunately, the cases I analyzed and the analysis model I used are relatively simple, and the audience can understand it better. In the whole exhibition process, I have achieved effective interaction and eye contact with the audience, and basically achieved the explanation without manuscript. Finally, I think the future exhibition, I need to improve the point is to prepare a clear thinking, vivid form of presentation materials, and in oral expression of logic and fluency need to be improved

This question may naturally elicit a feeling response. Beatrice, though not expressly required to do so, praises all the groups for their interaction and display materials. She recognizes the emotional impact of a lively performance and artistic presentation. She starts the analysis of her own presentation by also referring to feelings, in this case her nervousness, which she managed to calm down by focusing on the fact that her topic was a simple one. She exercised her will, and thus her willing, to gain control of herself to such an extent that she did not need to read from her notes. In looking forward to future presentations, she also emphasizes the need for clear thinking. In mentioning clear thinking, alongside vivacity and logic, she puts thinking, feeling and willing together.



Reflective question: What most engaged you this week? (reconstruction of self)

Joy tells us she engaged in the week with a will, felt the value of teamwork and saw how thinking could develop from an apparently simple problem. As a person she would seem to express willing more strongly than thinking or feeling:

 “In general, I think I've been very focused in class this week. And the time when I feel most engaged is when I wrote something in small groups. Our team members wrote down the advantages and disadvantages of remote working on a pad few days ago. We all used useful phrases provided by the teacher to connect the sentences. After we finished our own sentences, we helped each other improved the sentences and came up with some connections between the sentences to make the paragraphs more complete and logical. What impressed me the most was that it was very efficient and we could learn from each other. The other thing is that we did a role-play together and I think everyone was very involved. Although the background provided by this role-play made it less difficult for managers to make decisions, different and interesting ideas were still put forward by the group members during the discussion. Because there were different opinions so we could come up with more solutions”

She starts by saying she had been focussed and engaged throughout the week, thus participating in all the classroom activities with interest. In particular she remembers writing about online working – which had been the topic of Tuesday’s debate - when she wrote up about it in class. She seems to have realized how effective writing in small groups can be. She was also pleasantly surprised by the ideas that can be opened up around an apparently simple task. In both cases she changed her view of learning and thus of herself and, in doing so, brought thinking and feeling, in addition to willing, into the equation.

Reflective question: What did you least like? (reconstruction of self)

Priscilla refers to her lack of engagement on Friday and even a certain hostility to the day. Yet she blames herself (as well as her poor internet connection) for her inattention and points to a resolve to overcome her reticence next time. Yet she liked the role-play for the various opinions expressed, but also, primarily for its pleasant discussion and atmosphere.

 “But on Friday, I felt that I was not in a particularly good state in class. The reason for this situation may also be related to the instability of the network. However, I felt that I did not take the initiative to share my views when discussing how to make a brand for products, and I was not involved enough. But the subsequent role-playing and pleasant discussion still motivated me. We all expressed our opinions based on our roles, and the atmosphere for discussion was pleasant” (Priscilla)

She can see the need to change her attitude, but also noted her lack of will, her need for an emotionally satisfying atmosphere and her interest in the thinking expressed. 

Thus, overall, in basing their journals on their experiences in the classroom, the students saw reflection not as a distinct and abstract exercise, but a process that led on from the morning’s activities. They were, thereby, able to develop various levels of criticality while working with feeling and willing to create a harmonious account of their own development.

Student feedback

Three months after the course ended the students were sent two questions to comment on (see table three). The questions were sent only to the five students who contacted the author at Christmas. Out of these five, four replied. These questions are shown in table two below:

Feedback questions

  1. One idea of a journal is that it helps us to develop different levels of “criticism” from self-monitoring (am I doing the right thing?) to reflecting on oneself (how well did I do it?) to developing an awareness of the tradition (in your case business) to a renewed idea of oneself (How have I changed?). How far would you say your journal helped you to do this?

  2. Another idea of a journal is that it helps us to integrate our thinking feeling and willing. How far would you say your journal helped you to do this?


Table two: feedback questions [own chart]

In effect, they were being asked if they felt they had harmonised thinking, feeling and willing in their journal writing. 


Question one

In answering question one, where the focus is primarily on reflection, the respondents felt they could develop, discover and watch their ideas developing, thus enabling them to direct their future studies.  All of them stated that the journal was important as a way to summarise and review their day:

“I think that the journal allows me to summarize what I have done and thought throughout a day so that I can record the growth of my thinking” (Doris).

and noted the opportunity it gave them to self-monitor and reflect:

“Using a diary … is also a process of sorting out the things I have arranged and the final things I have completed so that I can know where my time was spent and then I can better arrange my time the next day” (Doris)

It also helped them to be more rational in their approach towards life and discover new ideas:

“I think it helps me to develop a rational mind and be more logical in what I am going to do. Also, diary helps me to develop a proper outlook on life and values that makes me become more thoughtful and understand more the whole world” (Doris)

“Indeed new things could be renewed in the process of writing a journal and also could be discovered when reviewing” (Alyosha)

In addition, it made them more aware of change in themselves and indicated where they needed to go for the future

“I think, in fact, we are changing and developing every day. It is only through journals, a form of recording, that makes us truly aware of the existence of this change, which is often overlooked” (Alyosha)

“It records my thoughts from immature to mature and constantly reflects on myself, how I have changed, and what I should do in the future after I had learned my lesson” (Mavis)

It, finally, helped them in their writing skills.

“I also need to make my paragraphs logical and organised. So by writing these journals, I can practice and improve my writing ability” (Margaret)


Question two

In answering question two, however, it was clear that, in addition to thinking, they felt they had engaged their willing and feeling.

“I recently watched Soul, a great movie, which also tells that we have been chasing something we desire in this modern world, and few people stop for a while to appreciate the feelings of a moment. Even if it is not an assignment, I sometimes keep some important thinking and feeling down through a journal” (Alyosha)

This involved recalling their thoughts and feelings as if talking through their ideas with a ‘friend’ leading to a kind of catharsis:

“In my opinion, writing a diary is like having a conversation with another person, I will tell him what I have done and experienced. What’s more, I often feel a lot more relaxed after writing out my worries and confusions” (Mavis)

Sometimes they could bring these three faculties together:

“In the process of writing, I did find some kind of integration. For example, on some bad days last year, I was really sad. I recorded it, but after I wrote it down, I found that it was not as bad as I thought. I encouraged myself to keep going. Looking back now, I found that it was a memorable experience” (Alyosha)

At times, however, this process could be a little difficult:

“Also at times there is not integration. Sometimes I thought a lot and had a lot of ideas, but I found another thing when I wrote it down. It seems that we just cannot express our feeling a hundred percent but it is still good to try and feel” (Alyosha)

Thus, the journals, though initially focussed on reflection, turned out to be a way to consciously integrate thinking, feeling and willing and thus develop the spirit, soul and body in harmony. 



This article has, thus, argued that there is a continuing tendency to value science at the expense of art and philosophy, which has created, and continues to create, an imbalance within the human being. The EAP course presented here, by privileging skills and sentence level grammar, followed the trend and encouraged science (thinking), over art or philosophy (feeling and willing). In the re-organisation of the course, this was remedied, to a degree, by bringing content and skills together in a coherent whole. Journals were used initially to allow for reflection. However, they turned out to provide an ideal space not only for harmonising thinking, feeling and willing, but for the conscious recognition among the participants of the value of doing so.

It has been the main argument of this aticle that if we do not find ways to encourage such harmonisation, we will succumb to an entirely material and materialistic idea of the human being, who will, thereby become a machine and no longer, in effect, human. 



Barnett, R. 1997 Higher Education: A Critical Business, Buckingham, Open University Press

Childs, G. 1991 Steiner Education in Theory and Practice Edinburgh, Floris Books

Fromm, E. 1941 Escape from Freedom, New York, Farrar & Rinehart; repr. The Fear of Freedom, London, Routledge 1942 (4th ed. 2001)

Hedge, T. and Whitney, N. (eds.) 1996 Power, Pedagogy and Practice, Oxford, Oxford University Press

Hooley, D.M. 2007 Roman Satire Oxford, Blackwell

Krashen, S. 1976 Formal and Informal Language Environments in Language Acquisition and Language Learning in “TESOL Quarterly” 10, 2, pp. 157-168

Massaro, J. (trans.) 1962 Bhagavad Gita  Penguin, London

Pico Della Mirandola, G. 1487 De Hominis Dignitate: Engl. Trans Oration on the Dignity of Man at Pdf (Accessed on March 22 2021)

Steiner, R. 1910 Das Christentum als mystische Tatsache und die Mysterien des Altertums: vom 8 Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung; Engl.Transl. Christianity as Mystical Fact,  New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1997

Steiner, R. 1951 Menschenerkenntnis und Unterrichtsgestaltung: 8 Vorträge gehalten in Stuttgart vom 302. bis 19. Juni 1921, Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung; Engl. Transl. Education for Adolescents: Eight Lectures given to the Teachers of the Stuttgart Waldorf School, June 12-19, 1921, New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1996

Steiner, R. 1961 Die Bhagavad Gita und die Paulusbriefe: 5 Vorträge gehalten in Köln vom 142. bis 27. Dezember 1912, Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Verlag; Engl. Transl. The Bhagavad Gita and the West: Five lectures held in Cologne, December 28, 1912-January 1 1913 Massachusetts, Anthroposophic Press, 2009

Steiner, R. 1972 Die Philosophie des Thomas von Aquino: 3 Vorträge gehalten in Dornach vom 74. bis 22. Mai 1920, Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung; Engl. Transl. The Redemption of Thinking: a Study in the Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas: Three lectures held in Dornach May 22-24, 1920 New York, Anthroposophic Press, 1983

Steiner, R. 1982 Bausteine zu einer Erkenntnis des Mysterium von Golgotha: 17 Vorträge gehalten in Dornach vom 175. bis 6 Februar 1917, Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung; Engl. Transl. Building Stones for an Understanding of the Mystery of Golgotha. Human life in a cosmic context: Seventeen lectures held in Dornach, February 6 – May 8, 1917, Forest Row, Rudolf Steiner Press, 2015

Steiner, R. 1990 Geistige Wirkenskäfte im Zusammenleben von alter und junger Generation (Padagogischer Jugendkurs): 13 Vorträge gehalten in Stuttgart vom  217  bis 3. Oktober 1922, Dornach, Rudolf Steiner-Nachlassverwaltung; Engl. Transl. Becoming the Archangel Michael’s Companions: Rudolf Steiner’s Challenge to the Younger Generation: Thirteen lectures held in Stuttgart, October 3-15, 1922 Massachusetts, Anthroposophic Press, 2007

Terrell, T. 1977 A Natural Approach to Second Language Acquisition and Learning in “The Modern Language Journal” 61, 7, pp. 325-337


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