Aspects of Nonkilling Literature
Balwant (Bill) Bhaneja is author of six books on arts, politics and science. His recent work is a literary non-fiction memoir, “Troubled Pilgrimage: Passage to Pakistan” (Toronto: TSAR/Mawenzi Publishing House, 2013), “Quest for Gandhi: A Nonkilling Journey” (Honolulu: Center for Global, Nonkilling, 2010), and also as collaborator with prolific playwright Vijay Tendulkar : “Vijay Tendulkar: Two plays – The Cyclist and His Fifth Woman”, (Oxford University Press (India), 2006), His adaptation and translation of plays from India have been produced by BBC World Service, and his short fiction published in Debonair, Manushi, and Des-Pardes. Since 2012, he has served as the coordinating editor of NKARC, a peace and arts newsletter for the Center for Global Nonkilling, Honolulu, Hawai’i (www.nonkilling.org). A former Canadian diplomat, Dr. Bhaneja holds a Ph.D. from University of Manchester, U.K. E-mail: email@example.com
“Everyone has the right not to be killed and the responsibility not to kill others.”
Robert Muller (1923-2010), Former UN Assistant Secretary General
It was Canadian philosopher Northrop Frye who once observed that we may not live in literature as much as we live in culture. Cultures get defined by institutions, structures and mores of people as well as through our thoughts, words, and actions. (Frye, 2007) Cultures may be geographic specific in contemporary post-colonial period, with the redrawing of boundaries and ensuing displacements they have been changing beyond recognition in a lifetime.
Each scientific advance, technological breakthrough or political victory seems to foretell of a better day only to pale beneath the cycle of violence. Wars, murders, genocide - the killing goes on unabated. Yet there is hope. A way to comprehending changing Culture may be through Humanizing language and teaching, appreciative of life-affirming values and ethics providing space for creative imagination.
Nonkilling with its global ethos focus sharply upon the prevention of taking of human life. The concept was first defined in 2002 by Glenn Durland Paige (1929 – 2017) in his seminal work, The Nonkilling Global Political Science. (Paige, 2002, 2009). Paige’s book showed that nonkilling is the precondition to peace and nonviolence; in fact, it permeates our Alpha to Omega. He was adamant that emergence of nonkilling societies would require discoveries and contributions of all scholarly disciplines and vocations globally, “drawing upon, advancing, and combining the Spiritual, Scientific, Skill, and Arts capabilities of humankind for change”. The ripples of profound insights emanating from that book translated in over 30 languages have been immeasurable.(www.nonkilling.org).
In this article, six recent nonkilling literary works with a focus on saving humanity from killings are examined. The books, both fiction and non-fiction, point not only to the act of lethality but also challenges posed by societal dehumanization, deprivation and declining values.
The three examples each in the two categories are: Rifet Bahtijaragic’s two novels, Chernov's Toil and Peace (2010) and Blood in His Eyes (2012), and Adrian de Hoog’s Natalia's Peace. In the non-fiction category, included are three memoirs: Diary of a Kidnapped Colombian Governor: A journey toward Nonviolent Transformation by Guillermo Gaviria Correa (English translation, 2010), Captivity by James Loney (2011), and A Persistent Peace by John Dear (2008).
The narratives of the three novels rooted in the conflicts of past century provide us a glimpse into their protagonists’ willingness to stand up risking their lives to assert human dignity and personal integrity undeterred by assaults of violence and injustice.
Chernovs' Toil and Peace
Rifet Bahtijaragic’s Chernovs’ Toil and Peace is a historical novel with a multitude of characters over generations covering a wide geographical canvas from Tbilisi, Georgia to present day Kamsack, Saskatchewan in Canada. It starts in the late 19th Century, focussed on the exodus of a small Doukhobor community in Central Europe fleeing from their persecution by the Russian Tsar and the Russian Orthodox Church of the time who want them to join the Tsar’s army to fight an imperial war. Doukhobors chose to burn their guns than to be conscripted in Tsar's army.
The multi-generation narrative of Dr. Misha Chernov’s family that begins with uprooting from their homeland in central Europe, journeying across the sea, and finding refuge in Canada, is about their struggle to protect their unique no-killing culture amidst a tumultuous life in their new land of adoption. Problems of retaining a Nonkilling identity in North America turns out to be the same as that which had forced their ancestors to leave Russia, to escape the ridicule of their beliefs.
A Doukhobor is fittingly described in a meeting by Misha when interviewed by the British journalist Arthur: “Everyone of them who is an honest person knows that our philosophy of life is humane...That all people are brothers and sisters, that we do not hate anybody, that a man has no right to kill another, or to exploit him in any way. That our understanding of the relationship with God is in the domain of each individual's spirit, and that nobody has the right to make politics or profit out of it...”
The narrator in the novel is searching for genes of nonviolence and nonkilling in human spirit from ancient times till today. Understanding of his story tied to Prometheus sentenced to be chained on the Caucasus mountain is not mere symbolic, Caucasus is where the Doukhobors began their resistance to bear arms, and therefore expelled by Russian imperators in case they would set a bad example for the others.
The nonkilling genes in human spirit as embodied in the Doukhobor way of living and thinking are interspersed throughout the story: “The philosophy which the Doukhobors embraced and made possible in practice had not been born in their movement. It had been like a river disappearing inside the earth in one place just to bubble forth again in some other place in the form of a new stream or river.” Misha continues: “Aspects of that (Doukhobor’) philosophy had for thousands of years crept through the crevices of civilization and survived all barbarities...”
The irony of the novel is not in having escaped a repressive war-fighting regime but coming into a new one where protecting sanctity of human life with similar commitment as burning of arms is equally ridiculed and has to be guarded with a zeal that sometimes make them feel as outsiders in their new land of adoption.
Blood in his Eyes
Bahtijaragic’s second novel is set in the killing fields of Bosnia in the 1990s which is being ravaged by an ongoing civil war between Serbs and Muslims. A story of two brothers of mixed culture Yudja and Osman, and their complex disconnect is depicted over three generations. The story told through the memory lens by aged Yudja who has moved to Canada as a refugee. Yudja is awaiting his wife and daughter who are separated from him by the war. Instead he is surprised by his illegitimate son Fehrat, arriving on his doorstep asking Yudja to provide him a temporary shelter. Fehrat, also a refugee in waiting, is missing a hand and a foot, both hacked by a Serb during the conflict.
The old Yudja and the young man know each other vaguely, they begin to talk and exchange stories of the atrocities they witnessed and experienced. Yudja’s story of nonkilling is shaped by the events of the Second World War when we learn what he went through at the outbreak of the war followed by the Nazi occupation of the Balkans. He had decided to choose a different path for peace from that of his brother Osman who had vowed to fight to avenge the enemy till death. Yudja can never forget Osman who always had ‘blood in his eyes’ like he sees in young Fehrat.
Yudja has vowed to keep himself from hating anyone having experienced the tragic cycle of vengeance and reprisal in the old war. His ideal is the principal corner-stone of the tradition of Bosnian multi-ethnic harmony: Whatever you are doing to other human beings, you are doing to yourself. The novel ends with Yudja understanding the cause of Fehrat’s deep anger. In the novel, Yudja’s unflinching non-fighting stance is clear when he explains to friend Emina his inability to support her in joining her comrades who are fighting for an united Balkans: “Killing is destruction, regardless of who does what to whom and why. Is it more humane and justifiable to butcher in the name of a better tomorrow and some vague ideals?! Killing is killing! They are all butchers to me. There is no difference...So, you are suggesting that I murder for the sake of the future of humanity. That I become one more criminal in the battle against other criminals...What you don’t see is that the butchers will be victorious. ... Do you really think that this will be the last of the butchery, if you win? If you think that there will be no more killing, then you are blind! ...Maybe, I’ll follow you into the Party if you will guarantee me that I will kill nobody and stay alive.”
Bahtijaragic wanted to show that amidst violence in the Balkans, there were many who shunned killing and sought peace and harmony. Bahtijaragic recently pointed out: “My nonviolence and nonkilling point of view of human’s relationships was very clear in this novel. I was all my life a pacifist. I was always blind for differences arising because of nations, religions and races.”
Adrian de Hoog’s novel, Natalia’s Peace incorporates the imminent need for world peace as a central theme. This is despite that the book is not a historical or a political story but a diplomatic-thriller, a genre in which de Hoog specializes. His novel is set in the Canadian Foreign Affairs Department and its Embassy in The Hague. The challenging themes of international politics of the day are touched upon: possibility of a Nonkilling world as the new world order; creation of a Global ethic with responsibility to prevent killing and to build a culture of peace; and the establishment of new peace infrastructures like a Federal Ministry of Peace. The Holland setting and the inside story of how governments operate comes natural to the author for his experience as a former diplomat and his Dutch-Canadian ethnicity.
De Hoog’s main protagonist Natalia is the Canadian ambassador in The Hague who is enthusiastic to get her country engaged in a UN based global peace initiative for creating a nonkilling world. The narrative shows the machinations of characters involved causing Natalia to fail because of corrupt politicians and deceitful lobbyists of military industrial complex, and their long reach inside democratic governments. The dealings not only destroy her career but her anthropologist husband is killed by same arms dealer lobbyist(s). Despite Natalia’s losses, de Hoog redeems his heroine, finding a way for her to pursue a path outside the government, indicating that a righteous action could result in the end for those who act their conscience and believe in oneness of the humanity.
Three new millennium non-fiction works reviewed in this section are examples of both top-down (a State Governor) and bottom-up (a peace mediator and a Jesuit priest) activists who epitomize the belief, “Be the change you want the others to become.” The books are: Diary of a Kidnapped Colombian Governor: A journey toward Nonviolent Transformation by Guillermo Gaviria Correa (English translation,2010); Captivity: 118 Days in Iraq and the Struggle for a World Without War by James Loney (2011) and A Persistent Peace: One Man’s Struggle for a Nonviolent World by John Dear (2008).
Diary of a Kidnapped Colombian Governor
Colombia’s Antioquia Province’s Governor Guillermo Gaviria Correa was kidnapped by FARC ‘guerillas’ on April 21, 2002 on the fifth day of his march for nonviolence and solidarity with the municipality of Caicedo which he planned and led. He was sacrificed by his captors in a failed rescue operation by military forces of Colombia on May 5, 2003. The Diary was written by Governor Gaviria as reflections of his year-long captivity in letters to his wife Yolanda Pinto de Gaviria. The book provides a reader an opportunity to reflect upon the futility of political kidnappings as a means of resolving political conflict to safeguard human rights of the poor peasants in his province. James Amstutz writes: “Through the Governor’s eyes we see the day to day existence of the disappeared. Through his ears, we hear the lament of fellow captives and the deep longing for words of hope. Through his words we speak an abiding faith of one committed to a higher calling and purpose. Through his suffering and death we count the cost of our convictions to strive for a nonkilling global society. Gaviria’s letters show day by day rising change in his efforts and commitment to bring both the Colombian authorities and FARC rebels closer to resolving issues that require basically mutual trust. That is more difficult than the apparent exchange of prisoners and surrender of arms by peasants. Neither side takes responsibility for the killings involved including that of taking down of Gaviria.”
Author James Loney while serving as a volunteer witness for Canada’s Christian Peace Maker Team (CPMT) during the second Iraq war was kidnapped in November 2004. He was held hostage for four months along with the three other members of a CPMT in a Baghdad suburb. This book written as a memoir examines the “illogical logic of violence”. Loney finds the paradox of his release as a hostage by Jihadi fighters whom he had gone to dissuade from participating in the US-Iraq war. He writes: “My living, breathing, everyday-walking –around freedom comes directly from the hand of the soldier who took a bolt cutter in his hands and cut the chain that held me captive for four months. Yet I remain a pacifist, a Christian who believes that Jesus’s teaching to love one’s enemy is a call to lay down the sword and pick up the cross, to accept rather than inflict suffering. It is a paradox.”
Loney’s “spiritual confrontation” with and reaction to violence are the story, and his journey back from captivity to a life of spiritual wholeness is the outcome. There is a deep truth telling in this book. Not only Loney sets on a path of nonviolence but in “the process (he) tries to unravel the context of Christian and Catholic tradition which has been often ambivalent toward war.”(Schwartzentruber, 2011:148) Loney is a grass-roots activist with previous experience of being a Humanist Intervener in Palestine. He has been trained by CPMT before coming to Baghdad. The relationship between the captor and the captive is critical to him: “the captor requires two things from his captive: one, primary, the other secondary (though no less necessary). The first: control and submission. The second: absolution. It is in this second dimension as the captors come to experience the humanity of their captives which opens up a kind of spiritual passage, a common humanity between them.” (Schwartzentruber, 2011:149) Loney describes this transformative Nonkilling moment as follows: “It seems as if the first step down the road to violence is taken when I dehumanize a person. That violence might stay within my thoughts or find its way into the outer world and become expressed verbally, psychologically, structurally or physically. As soon as I rob a fellow human being of his or her humanity by sticking a dehumanizing label on them, I begin the process that can have, as an end result, torture, injury and death.”
Loney remains a nonviolent champion, he practices what he preaches even when that means putting his life in danger. He believes that those working for peace in war have to be ready to die as soldiers who go to fight military wars. What motivates Loney and his colleagues is the belief that to serve as an humanist "intermediary” is about amplifying the cries of those who had no voice, a sort of human rights special forces team in the field. His Nonkilling ethics is reflected in his spontaneous upright moral reaction amidst harsh reality of captivity: "The glory of- just- being alive" or conviction that he wants to share with his captors that we all were created to give life, not to take it. He asks: "what would happen if Christians devoted the same discipline and self-sacrifice to non-violent peacemaking that armies devote to war?" At another place, he thinks aloud to his imagined reader : "I wonder, if we sat and talked for a while, if I could tell you about them, maybe you would see what I have begun to see, that there is no such thing as "Iraqi freedom" or "American freedom" that there is only human freedom. We were created to give life, not to take it. Our freedom begins when we live in accord with this purpose.”
A Persistent Peace
This is autobiography of an American Jesuit peace activist, John Dear. It starts in Israel by the Sea of Galilee and ends in New Mexico, taking us to all the troubled spots of the past two decades across the globe (Northern Ireland, Israel, Palestine, Iraq, USA etc) where Dear resisted peacefully those in power. He has been arrested more than seventy-five times for his civil disobedience for different causes mostly in the USA, in protests against the mighty US military-industrial-complex. One of such protests has been at the Los Alamos labs where nuclear weaponry is developed.
Dear describes his life journey to be taking him to the Gospel nonviolence. His conscience wouldn’t allow him to accept that both the God of peace and the idols of war can co-exist – “One can’t sing praises to the Creator and design weapons that could put the earth into an eternal winter”. In one of his visits to a school in New Mexico he asks a student – “what is that about when Jesus says, The Kingdom of God is at hand?” He is struck by the insightful reply of the youth: “Isn’t the kingdom of God life itself?” Dear states that the youth’s simple yet honest reply made him understand for the first time that the substance of life itself is the reign/kingdom of God. It is already here, ever present in our ordinary lives – in breathing and wonder. For him, the Gospel of Nonviolence holds the key to personal and societal transformation. He concludes: “The future will be a future of peace, if we dare to seek it, sacrifice for it, and enact it – a new world without war, poverty, or nuclear weapons, where God’s reign abounds freely and all accept its abundant grace and love.” As Catholic activist Dorothy Day once said, “the measure of discipleship is the amount of trouble you are in for justice and peace”.
Creativity and nonkilling literature
One of the earliest references to “Nonkilling creativity” by Glenn D. Paige I found in a book by Daisaku Ikeda, For the Sake of Peace (2001). In his Foreword, Paige wrote that when he first met Soka Gakai International (SGI) President Ikeda in December, 1980, “our dialogue centered on the importance of creativity in realizing global conditions of principled respect for life.” (Ikeda, 2001, p.xi) Ikeda greatly respected creative thinking. Like Ikeda, Paige’s drive from the outset has been on how to make such creative discoveries educative and transformational.
It is the creative ability of the artist however that helps to tap into the human conscience, holding the mirror to our souls in which both our good and ugly traits get reflected in the hope that the reflection would urge us and our leaders to question the status quo and take action for change. The emancipation of the human spirit is the ultimate hope of an artist wanting to create a work of art. In literary explorations, potential for finding deeper insights intuitively are significant, and might not be possible through empirical works; they emanate essentially from the call of conscience.
Internal and external quests
A nonkilling literary creation reminds us about the sanctity of life, not about just one individual but the whole humanity irrespective of race, religion or nationality. As Japanese educationist Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944) once remarked that human beings did not have the power to create matter, they only had the power to create value.(SGI Quarterly, 2012:13) Aspirations for a nonkilling world in itself is a value - the creation of a vision. The actions and aspirations of protagonists in the three novels show that Misha, Yudja, or Natalia, despite trying circumstances, are searching for a space where they could hold on to their deeper convictions and integrity without fear. This search for truth is both external and internal. The external is related to courage to find a physical space that will enable them to breathe freely, liberating them from the stifling culture steeped in power inequities. To fight these, the protagonists have little choice but to be a part of a struggle in their fractionated homeland or escape to a relatively more humane and freer foreign land to start again. For Misha and Yudja, their refuge is Canada; for Canadian Natalia and her husband it is in the other direction, Holland.
Their internal quest points to a profound reverence for human life as each individual is indispensible and respectworthy. That comes through a unexpected self-discovery of one’s true self. It is about admission of that inherent purer form of love present in all, waiting to be tapped. Yudja cannot help but confess to Fehrat about his past, admitting that despite high minded ideals of pacifism, he is in fact his biological father who had abandoned him to escape to a foreign land. In Natalia’s loss of her anti-violence husband killed by military lobbyists, she is determined to continue his work in setting up an independent Institute of Peace abroad. In Nonkilling memoirs of Gaviria and Loney, the peace captives in conversations with their kidnappers, cherish using dialectics instead of weapons as a way of not seeing adversaries as ruthless foes. It is a unique opportunity to test their core values. While living among guerrilla encampment, Gaviria is hopeful to arise a humanist fellowship with guerilla fighters despite their continued suspicion of the government officials’ offer of quid pro quo release of rebels held hostage by the Colombian government.
Parameters of Nonkilling Literature
Unarmed Gaviria and Loney who are Catholics, without explicitly talking about their faiths, rely on an internal belief system what Lev Tolstoy described in his book, ‘The Kingdom of God is Within You’. (Tarasoff, 2010). Love and and forgiveness are central to a path to peace.
The artist having a principled nonkilling spirit within is of fundamental importance in these artistic creations. These works whether fiction or non-fiction are not written from a place of hatred but with a genuine desire of reconciliation with enemy. Otherwise as Paige notes, we just seem to get ‘atrocity- lamenting’ art over the centuries without any principled nonkilling critique. Recipients must make their own judgments. Hatred and counter killing remain an option. Both fiction and non-fiction works reviewed here confirm Paige’s contention that “nonkilling discovery within seems important before expressing it artistically or otherwise to others.” To Paige an artist “without nonkilling spirit within might hypothetically invent it like scientists simulating nuclear war.” (Paige: note to Bhaneja 12July2012)
We have to go beyond tendencies of conventional arts to lament, entertain and profit from atrocities of killing, often extolling the heroism and victory of favored champion military and other killers. In contrast, we must analyse nonviolent champions whose actions have transformed conflict from violence to nonviolence. Governor Gavaria walks into FARC rebel territory and knowingly becomes their prisoner, it does not necessarily bring positive results. Instead his altruism ends up in a botched rescue mission by the authorities making him a Nonkilling martyr -- the circumstances of unintended Nonkilling martyrdom that could have been prevented by actions of others. Nonkilling literature helps us reflect on ways of overcoming trauma associated with innocent human killing through a better understanding of such tragic engagements, these have significant potential to become epic nonviolent movements.
Nonkilling literature, poetry and humanizing education
A good literary work comes about as a response to the reality in which its creator is living or surrounded by it. The intent is to create a space in which such literature could be imagined and recognized to promote essence of nonkilling ethic (or its lack thereof). Humanizing education through Nonkilling analytic can help make one understand the context and motivation -- the root causes and tipping points for the start and end of conflict. A causation that reveals: what is the cause of killing, what could have prevented the killing, and the characteristics of a completely killing-free situation? (Paige, 2002: 72). Study of such context through Nonkilling writing can make one observe, argue, and understand facts and motivations of decisions that may have been taken about killings and nonkilling.
Poetry is another art form where nonkilling imagination has brought new insights to understanding of human psyche and behaviour. The work of Francisco Gomes de Matos a Brazilian peace linguist and a pioneer in Humanising Nonkilling poetry deserves a singular mention. Professor George Simson in his introduction to Gomes de Matos’ slim book of poems, "Nurturing Nonkilling: A Poetic Plantation" (2009) notes that in his rhythmic reflections "mortality is celebrated, not feared...they demand intellectual courage with the smile of rational equanimity." These reflections show “that nonkilling thought, act, imagination, art, feeling, commitment, teaching and career can be experienced , thought about, committed to, felt imagined in a whole world of permutations and combinations far beyond innocence. Mythic fictions are nice confections but have to give way to the reality of mortality, hence nonkilling." (Gomes de Matos, 2009, George Simson:11).
In a nut-shell, nonkilling literature seeks to discover truth of how to discern what one’s life is worth both as an individual and as a citizen. It filters things out and is left with the essence of what has to be treasured most - life beyond destructive forces of any kind. Fear, anger, and hatred play a critical role in an act of killing, while such positive emotions as empathy, trust, and forgiveness inhibit aggressive behaviour. The literature is in cognition of the both aspects through observation and evaluation leading to understanding of the truth in its fullness. Humanizing education can be a way to make humans of virtue and courage who speak truth to power and act righteously.
In his poem “Writers for Nonkilling” Gomes de Matos (2009: 102) aptly summarizes:
"Of all the wisdoms in which writers can excel
there is one which humanizingly stands out
It thrives where Peace and Nonkilling dwell
Writers sail strong seas of saying and seeing
when as courageous peacemakers they are inspired
Writers can bring beauty to the blessing of being”
(Gomes de Matos, 2009, p.102)
We need more creation and identification of Nonkilling literary works to provide new insights into authentic self-discoveries and relationships that cut across cultural, ethnic, gender and national divides. These insights will enable us comprehend conflict from the point of view of ‘universal human’ and inspire us for a life-affirming globe.
Bibliography of the literary works reviewed in the article
Bahtijaragic, Rifet, (2010), Chernovs’ Toil and Peace, Baltimore, MD: Publish America, 2010, pp. 524.
Bahtijaragic, Rifet, (2012) Blood in the Eyes, Baltimore,MD: Publish America, pp. 280.
De Hoog, Adrian (2011), Natalia’s Peace, Ottawa: Adytum Publishing, pp. 341.
Bahtijaragic,Rifet (2008), FOOTPRINTS: Poetry and threads of a poetical impression, Trafford Publishing, pp.222. "FOOTPRINTS combines poetry, essays and "fictive" interviews with Marshal Tito, the Dalai Lama, and Stephen Hawking. Bahtijaragic notes that his "poetry born out of the Bosnian War - lyrical, bitter, impassioned, searching, and ultimately hopeful."
Dear, John (2008), A Persistent Peace: One Man’s Struggle for a Nonviolent World, Chicago: Loyola Press, pp.437.
Gaviria Correa, Guillermo (2010), Diary of a Kidnapped Colombian Governor: A Journey Toward a Nonviolent Transformation, Telford PA: DreamSeeker Books, Cascadia Publishing House, pp.283.
Loney, James, (2011) Captivity: 118 Days in Iraq and the Struggle for a World Without War. Toronto: Knopf, pp.432.
Gomes de Matos, Francisco, Nurturing Nonkilling:A Poetic Plantation, 2010 Honolulu: Centre for Global Nonkilling. pp.152. Foreword by George Simson. Text can be also downloaded at: www.nonkilling.org
Frye, Northrop, (2007) Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays, 2007, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Ikeda, Daisaku, (2001), For the Sake of Peace: Seven Paths to Global Harmony, Santa Monica: Middleway Press
Paige, Glenn D., (2002, 2009), Nonkilling Global Political Science, Philadelphia: Xlibris and Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling
Paige, Glenn D. (2012), Nonkilling Arts: Five Scenarios, July 28, 2012 (email to Bill Bhaneja, Coordinator, Nonkilling Arts Research Committee)
Paige, Glenn D., A note on importance of artist having a nonkilling spirit, email to Bill Bhaneja, 12 July 2012 email)
Satha-Anand,Chaiwat comment on the Alpha-Omega dimension of Nonkilling, Nonkilling Leadership Academy, Center for Global Nonkilling, Honolulu, Fall 2010
SGI Quarterly, Special Issue on “Developing Creativity”, January 2012, Number 27. Tsunesaburo Makiguchi quoted in an article entitled, “Creating Value” by Jason Goulah, pp.12-13.
Schwartzentruber, Paul (2011) Review Essay on James Loney’s Captivity in Ahimsa Nonviolence, Vol VII, No. 3, July-Sept. 2011, pp147-149
Tarasoff, Koozma J.(2010) Review of Chernovs' Toil and Peace, A historical novel about a Doukhobor family by Rifet Bahtijaragic on website: www.spirit-wrestlers.com. 4 Aug. 2010 (also on https://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dnxrfb8_534cn3m2888 )
Urbain, Olivier (2009), “Nonkilling Arts” in Towards a Nonkilling Paradigm, ed: Joám Evans Pim, Honolulu: Center for Global Nonkilling, 2009, pp.13-35 . Text available on www.nonkilling.org
There are other literary works not covered in the article due to space constraints. Some have been mentioned/reviewed in posts in the back issues of Nonkilling Arts Research Committee Letter (https://nonkilling.org/center/publications-media/nonkilling-arts/) and on Center for Global Nonkilling website (www.nonkiling.org).
Please check the Pilgrims f2f courses at Pilgrims website.
Please check the Pilgrims online courses at Pilgrims website.
How ONE Idea Can Change the World: Grej of the Day
Lisa Ng, Malaysia
Aspects of Nonkilling Literature
Balwant Bhaneja, Canada