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October 2019 - Year 21 - Issue 5

ISSN 1755-9715

Students’ Perceptions of Completing Practice and Production Tasks via a Learning Management System

Mary Jane Özkurkudis is an instructor at Izmir University of Economics, Turkey where she currently holds the position of the Head of the Curriculum and Material Development Unit. She holds an MA degree in Curriculum and Instruction. Her fields of interest are curriculum design and programme evaluation. Email:



A case study was carried out in the preparatory programme of a foundation university to examine students’ perceptions of completing practice and production tasks through a learning management system. Students were given a Likert-scale survey to complete and their attitude towards using an LMS to complete practice and production tasks was analysed. Perceptions of female and male students were separately analysed to see if there were any differences in their attitudes. Findings indicate that although students prefer doing tasks in a traditional way, their views about using the LMS are generally positive. However, further studies can be done to investigate the underlying reasons for this preference. No significant difference was noted between the male and female students’ perceptions.



We are living in a technological world, where every day a new gadget enters our lives. Whether it be a new household appliance or a high-quality smartphone, technology has embraced all aspects of people’s lives. This impact of technology is also widely seen on education.

It is nearly impossible to find a school that does not make use of educational technology. Schools, currently, have the necessary technological infrastructure, and nearly all schools provide access to the Internet. Classrooms are equipped with smart boards and even computers. Hard copy books start to leave their places to soft copy books, and nearly all books have online platforms. Students can do online activities and assignments. They can take online courses or study at their own pace through flipped or blended learning. Nowadays, most schools and universities use a Learning Management System (LMS) to provide their course content and assignments. Teachers can share material and assign students tasks and homework. They can even give online quizzes or tests. Students can interact through online discussion boards and can follow blogs. The LMS becomes the magical bridge between the teacher and the students. 

But how do our students respond to this amount of technology? They are the Generation Z. They were born into a technological world. They are technologically literate. They can use their smartphones perfectly. They know how to use computers, laptops, tablets. However, when it comes to education technology how literate are they? And, when it comes to submitting their homework through an online system how capable are they? Can they cope with educational technology or are they not so technologically literate as we think they are?



The study was conducted in the light of the above questions. The purpose of this study was mainly to observe students’ attitude towards the LMS, to see how effectively they utilized the system to complete practice and production tasks outside the classroom, and based on this, to analyse their perceptions. 

The research question was: What are the students’ perceptions on doing practice and production activities through an LMS?

The sub-questions were:

1. Do students prefer doing activities in class and on paper?

2. Do students prefer doing activities on LMS?

3. Do students prefer working individually or with their friends on LMS?

4. What is the female students’ attitude towards doing activities through an LMS?

5. What is the male students’ attitude towards doing activities through an LMS?”

This paper will present, in detail, the planning and implementation stages, the data collection and analysis process, and the outcomes of the study.



The study was carried out in a small context. It involved only 20 students. The duration of the study was limited to 7 weeks, as the school followed a modular system of 8 weeks, and the researcher did not have the possibility to implement a more extended plan.


Literature review

To cope with the prerequisites of the Information Age and to increase teacher-student interaction, most institutions have started to implement a Learning Management System (LMS) in their curriculum. An LMS can be defined as a web-based application that enables students and teachers to interact and share material online (Raga & Rodavia, 2018). Students can access course material, chat with their teachers and do online quizzes or tasks (Borboa & Joseph et al., 2014). According to Srichanyachon (2014), an LMS helps to manage the curriculum and course material. It provides teachers with the opportunity to track students’ performance by assigning homework and quizzes, and it promotes blended learning. Therefore, the teacher has some control over the students outside the classroom by following their progress (Dudeney & Hockly, 2007).

Apart from its benefits, an LMS is considered to have several drawbacks. One disadvantage is that not all aspects of learning can be done online (Raga & Rodavia, 2018). For instance, it can be difficult for a medical student to learn how to operate on someone without actually seeing it. Another drawback is it may not be possible to implement different teaching styles. Every teacher has his/ her own style of teaching and it is impossible to implement this into the system (Raga & Rodavia, 2018). Face-to-face education can be more beneficial in that sense. Lack of computer skills, lack of motivation in students and lack of infrastructure can also hinder the effective use of an LMS (Selim, 2007). A final drawback is that an LMS is teacher-centred as it gives all the control to the teacher. The teacher uploads material, gives assignments and quizzes and gives feedback, thus improving their efficacy (Holmes, 2018; Mott & Wiley, 2009; Weaver, Spratt & Nair, 2008).

Several studies were carried out on the perceptions of teachers and students of a learning management system. One study was with 291 students and 9 teachers of an undergraduate computer class in Manila. Participants had previously taken or were involved in a course delivered through an LMS. Data was collected through an online questionnaire and results showed that both students and teachers had a positive attitude towards the LMS (Raga & Rodavia, 2018).

Another study was carried out with postgraduate and graduate students and staff within an Educational School. Data was collected through a survey, a focus group and an interview. The results showed that students and the staff had different views on the different aspects of the LMS. However, both found it accessible and students especially thought the online quizzes created interaction and provided them with instant feedback on their performance (Holmes, 2018).

At a state university in Turkey, a study was carried out with 129 preparatory school students and 4 instructors of English to investigate the students’ and instructors’ perceptions of using an LMS. Data was collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that students were positive about the practicality of the LMS, but were not so sure about its usefulness. Nearly half of the students stated that using an LMS improved their listening, reading and grammar skills whereas the majority thought it did not help them with their writing and vocabulary skills. No significant difference between the male and female students was visible. Instructors mostly perceived the use of an LMS positively (Tayşı & Başaran, 2018).

One study carried out among 198 undergraduate students in Bangkok showed that students’ perceptions of using an LMS were moderate. Students thought that the LMS was a useful tool to improve their English learning (Srichanyachon, 2014). Another study examined students’ perceptions of the use of learning management tools and other technology in class. The study was carried out with graduate and undergraduate students in Texas and the results revealed that students had a positive attitude towards technology tools, and that female students stated that some of the technologies such as the quizzes affected their learning positively (Borboa et al., 2014).

Based on the studies, it can be inferred that students’ perceptions of the learning management system are mainly positive. When female and male students’ perceptions are analysed separately there is no significant difference. Students find the LMS substantially accessible and useful.





The study was carried out using the holistic single case study design (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2016). A case study “examines and analyses in depth the communication between the factors that affect the development and change, or the factors that define the current state” (Best & Kahn, 2017, p. 274).  In such study, development is observed within the process and the case is examined as a whole. Therefore, one should be attentive when deciding on the subject to be examined because the participants should show similar qualities with the whole context (Best & Kahn, 2017).

In the study, a single case, one English preparatory school class has been analysed. As the main purpose is to get the students’ views on using an LMS to complete practice and production tasks, the process was examined holistically and analytical generalizations were made based on the participants’ response.



The participants were 20 (11 female and 9 male) A1 level learners of English in the preparatory school of a foundation university. The age range of the students was from 17 to 21. The participants had different educational backgrounds; some came from public schools and some from private schools and colleges. Some were exposed to educational technology for the first time and some had only used smart boards.



Practice and production tasks were prepared based on the topics covered in the students’ reading and writing book.  The tasks intended to make the students use the reading, vocabulary, writing and grammar skills they had learnt within the units. The study consisted of a writing assignment, a task/ activity and a quiz on a weekly basis. The tasks included individual, pair work and group work activities that focused on either vocabulary, grammar, writing and listening skills, and the quizzes tested vocabulary, listening and reading skills.



The study lasted seven weeks. The students were assigned the tasks on Friday of each week and they were allowed four days to complete them.



An action plan (Appendix A) was prepared based on the topics covered in the students’ reading and writing book. At the end of each unit, each week, the tasks were uploaded onto the LMS and were made available to the students on Friday. The tasks consisted of practice and production activities, and some involved pair work and group work. They intended to provide students with extra practice. Students were asked to write a paragraph, to complete a task/an activity, and to do a quiz. No other further practice and production on the unit was done in class. Students’ progress was followed by a checklist prepared by the researcher (Appendix B).


Data collection tools

At the end of the seven-week process quantitative data was collected through a Likert-scale survey (Appendix C). According to Turan, Şimşek and Aslan (2015) a Likert-scale survey consists of statements including an opinion or attitude towards the research topic. It also includes options that show the level of agreement from the highest to the lowest. During the analysis process, these options are given a number value and qualitative data is transformed to quantitative data, and it is analysed in that sense. The survey consisted of two parts. In the first part, there was a question about the gender of the students, and the second part consisted of 15 questions. Questions in the second part were formed based on the research question and focused on the views and perceptions of the students on using an LMS for extra practice and production instead of doing tasks in class.


Data analysis

Quantitative data collected from the students was analysed on IBM-SPSS Version 21. Descriptive statistics and frequencies were analysed. In order to determine if there was a difference between the female and male students’ views an independent t-test was performed.



Based on the descriptive analysis (Appendix D) the findings revealed that students’ attitude towards doing exercises and activities on LMS is generally moderate.

Q1. Do students prefer doing activities in class and on paper?

When the results were analysed it was seen that the item with the highest mean (3.0) was “the exercises on LMS provide me with an opportunity to practise” and this was followed by “I prefer doing exercises in class (2.6)”, and “I believe that exercises should be done in class (2.5)”.

2. Do students prefer doing activities on LMS?

The mean scores for this question demonstrate that the most effective aspect of the LMS is that students like doing production tasks (2.8). The next was “students find doing exercises on LMS beneficial  (2.8)”, this was followed by “it is easy for me to do exercises using technology (2.6)”, and “I only like doing quizzes on LMS (2.5)”. The average scores for “doing tasks on LMS increases my interest towards the lesson” and “I like doing exercises on LMS” were 2.4.

3. Do students prefer working individually or with their friends on LMS?

According to the results, “I feel more comfortable when I do exercises on my own on LMS” received the highest (3.0) score, followed by “I find the exercises that I do individually on LMS more beneficial (2.6)”, and “I prefer doing exercises with my friends on LMS (2.5)”.

4. What is the female students’ attitude towards doing activities through an LMS?

5. What is the male students’ attitude towards doing activities through an LMS?”

As seen in Table 1, the mean scores of the female group was 6.90 and it was 7.33 for the male group. The calculated t-value was 0.29 (p-value was .78).As p was measured >.05, no significant difference was detected between the females’ and males’ attitude.

Table 1. Comparison of the female and male participants’ attitude (n=20)


Conclusion and  discussion

Based on the findings and the literature (Borboa et al., 2014; Holmes, 2018¸Raga & Rodiva, 2018; Srichanyachon, 2014; Tayşı & Başaran 2018) it can be said that students’ attitude towards doing exercises and activities through a learning management system is mainly positive and students treat the practice and production tasks nearly the same way. They do not find one more difficult to cope with than the other. Furthermore, there is no significant difference between the male and female students’ attitude (Tayşı & Baran, 2018).

However, it can be said that there is still an inclination towards the traditional method; doing the practice and production tasks in class with the support of a teacher. As I have previously stated, our students are born into technology, but when it comes to educational technology, they still do not know how to cope with it and how to tackle the problems. This may be because of the traditional study habits they have. Another point to consider is that students prefer doing tasks individually whether it is in class or on an LMS. There may be many underlying reasons for this. Again, it can be because of the students’ study habits, their educational background or the amount of the self-confidence they have.

As mentioned before, this study was limited to a small group of students and a short period of time, but the results can shed light on new broader research. It will be worth studying the perceptions’ of students of an LMS in a wider sense, and to focus more on the underlying reasons for the attitude they have.



Best, J.W. & Kahn, J.V. (2017). Eğitimde araştırma yöntemleri. Konya: Eğitim Yayınevi.

Borboa, D. & Joseph, M. & Spake D. & Yazdanparast, A. (2014) Perceptions and use of learning management system tools and other Technologies in higher education: a preliminary analysis. Journal of Learning in Higher Education 10.2 (2014). Retrieved November 14, 2018 from

Dudeney, G. & Hockly N. (2007). How to teach English with technology. Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Holmes, K. A. (2018). Student and staff perceptions of a learning management system for blended learning in teacher education. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 43.3 (2018). Retrieved November 14, 2018 from

Mott, J. & Wiley, D. (2009). Open for learning: The CMS and the open learning network. In education, 15(2). Retrieved November 15, 2018 from

Raga, R. C. & Rodavia, M. R. (2018). Perceptions and utilization of a learning management system: an analysis from two perspectives. International Symposium on Educational Technology. Retrieved November 14, 2018 from

Selim, H. M. (2007). Critical success factors for e-learning acceptance: confirmatory factor models. International Journal of Technology Marketing 2(2), 157-182. Retrieved November 15, 2018 from

Srichanyachon, N. (2014). EFL learners’ perceptions of using LMS. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology 13.4. Retrieved November 14, 2018 from

Turan, İ., Şimşek, Ü. ve Aslan, H. (2015). Eğitim araştırmalarında likert ölçeği ve likert-tipi       soruların kullanımı ve analizi. Sakarya Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, ISSN: 1303-0310.

Weaver, D., Spratt, C. & Nair, C. S. (2008). Academic and student use of a learning management system: implications for quality. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 24.1. Retrieved November 15, 2018 from

Yıldırım, A. ve Şimşek, H. (2016). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin



Appendix A

Action plan



Week 1


Task: Nationalities (Vocabulary and Listening)- Individual work

Quiz: Introduction to English (Vocabulary and Grammar)- Multiple choice

Week 2


Writing: Write a paragraph about a family member

Task: Interview your friend (Vocabulary and Grammar)- Pairwork

Quiz: Personal profile (Vocabulary and Listening)- Fill in the blanks

Week 3


Writing: Write a paragraph about the weather in a city

Task: Write about the weather by examining a map (Vocabulary, Grammar and Writing)- Individual work

Quiz: Weather (Vocabulary)- Matching

Week 4


Writing: Write a paragraph about a friend

Task: Someone’s profile (Vocabulary and Listening)- Individual work

Quiz: Daily schedule (Vocabulary and Listening)- Fill in the blanks

Week 5


Writing: Write a paragraph about a country

Task: Write a fact file for a country (Vocabulary and Grammar)- Group work

Quiz: World map (Reading)- True/False

Week 6


Writing: Write a paragraph about the job of a family member

Task: Job crossword (Vocabulary)- Individual work

Quiz: Unusual jobs (Reading)- True/ False

Week 7


Writing: Compare two buildings

Task: Buildings (Vocabulary)- Individual work

Quiz: Art Museum (Reading)- Matching



Appendix B



Appendix C


Perceptions of Completing Practice and Production Tasks on LMS

  1. Personal Information



Appendix D

Descriptive analysis


Please check the Practical uses of Technology in the English Classroom course at Pilgrims website.

Please check the Practical uses of Mobile Technology in the English Classroom course at Pilgrims website

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